The Chronicles of the Chronicle Flask: 2016

2016 is limping to its painful conclusion, still tossing out last-minute nasty surprises like upturned thumb tacks in the last few metres of a marathon. But the year hasn’t been ALL bad. Some fun, and certainly interesting, things happened too. No, really, they did, honestly.

So with that in mind, let’s have a look back at 2016 for the Chronicle Flask….

January kicked off with a particularly egregious news headline in a well-known broadsheet newspaper: Sugar found in ketchup and Coke linked to breast cancer. Turns out that the sugar in question was fructose. Yes, the sugar that’s in practically everything, and certainly everything that’s come from a plant. So why did the newspaper in question choose ketchup and Coke for their headline instead of, oh, say, fruit juice or honey? Surely not just in an effort to sell a few more newspapers after the overindulgent New Year celebrations. Surely.

octarineThere was something more lighthearted to follow when IUPAC  verified the discoveries of elements 113, 115, 117 and 118. This kicked off lots of speculation about the elements’ eventual names, and the Chronicle Flask suggested that one of them should be named Octarine in honour of the late Sir Terry Pratchett. Amazingly, this suggestion really caught everyone’s imagination. It was picked up in the national press, and the associated petition got over 51 thousand signatures!

In February I wrote a post about the science of statues, following the news that a statue to commemorate Sir Terry Pratchett and his work had been approved by Salisbury City Council. Did you know that there was science in statues? Well there is, lots. Fun fact: the God of metalworking was called Hephaestus, and the Greeks placed dwarf-like statues of him near their Hearths – could this be where the fantasy trope of dwarves as blacksmiths originates?

MCl and MI are common preservatives in cosmetic products

MCl and MI are common preservatives in cosmetic products

My skeptical side returned with a vengeance in March after I read some online reviews criticising a particular shampoo for containing a substance known as methylchloroisothiazolinone. So should you be scared of your shampoo? In short, no. Not unless you have a known allergy or particularly sensitive skin. Otherwise, feel free to the pick your shampoo based on the nicest bottle, the best smell, or the forlorn hope that it will actually thicken/straighten/brighten your hair as promised, even though they never, ever, ever do.

Nature Chemistry published Another Four Bricks in the Wall in April – a piece all about the potential names of new elements, partly written by yours truly. The month also brought a sinus infection. I made the most of this opportunity by writing about the cold cure that’s 5000 years old. See how I suffer for my lovely readers? You’re welcome.

In May I weighed in on all the nonsense out there about glyphosate (and, consequently, learned how to spell and pronounce glyphosate – turns out I’d been getting it wrong for ages). Is it dangerous? Nope, not really. The evidence suggests it’s pretty harmless and certainly a lot safer than most of its alternatives.

may-facebook-postSomething else happened in May: the Chronicle Flask’s Facebook page received this message in which one of my followers told me that my post on apricot kernels had deterred his mother from consuming them. This sort of thing makes it all worthwhile.

In June the names of the new elements were announced. Sadly, but not really very surprisingly, octarine was not among them. But element 118 was named oganesson and given the symbol Og. Now, officially, this was in recognition of the work of Professor Yuri Oganessian, but I for one couldn’t help but see a different reference. Mere coincidence? Surely not.

July brought another return to skepticism. This time, baby wipes, and in particular a brand that promise to be “chemical-free”. They’re not chemical-free. Nothing is chemical-free. This is a ridiculous label which shouldn’t be allowed (and yet, inexplicably, is still in use). It’s all made worse by the fact that Water Wipes contain a ‘natural preservative’ called grapefruit seed extract which, experiments have shown, only actually acts as a preservative when it’s contaminated with synthetic substances. Yep. Turns out some of Water Wipes claims are as stinky as the stuff they’re designed to clean up.

Maria Lenk Aquatic Enter, Tuesday, Aug. 9, 2016. (AP Photo/Matt Dunham)

Maria Lenk Aquatic Enter, Tuesday, Aug. 9, 2016. (AP Photo/Matt Dunham)

August brought the Olympics, and speculation was rife about what, exactly, was causing the swimming pools to turn such strange shades of green. Of course, the Chronicle Flask knew the correct solution…

August also saw MMS and CD reared their ugly heads on social media again. CD (chlorine dioxide) is, lest we forget, a type of bleach solution which certain individuals believe autistic children should be made to drink to ‘cure’ them. Worse, they believe such children should be forced to undergo daily enemas using CD solutions. I wrote a summary page on MMS (master mineral solution) and CD, as straight-up science companion to the commentary piece I wrote in 2015.

mugsSeptember took us back to pesticides, but this time with a more lighthearted feel. Did you know that 99.99% of all the pesticides you consume are naturally-occurring? Well, you do if you regularly read this blog. The Chronicle Flask, along with MugWow, also produced a lovely mug. It’s still for sale here, if you need a late Christmas present… (and if you use the code flask15 you’ll even get a discount!)

In October, fed up with endless arguments about the definition of the word ‘chemical’ I decided to settle the matter once and for all. Kind of. And following that theme I also wrote 8 Things Everyone Gets Wong About ‘Scary’ Chemicals for WhatCulture Science.

Just in case that wasn’t enough, I also wrote a chapter of a book on the missing science of superheroes in October. Hopefully we should see it in print in 2017.

Sparklers are most dangerous once they've gone out.

Sparklers are most dangerous once they’ve gone out.

I decided to mark Fireworks Night in November by writing about glow sticks and sparklers. Which is riskier? The question may not be as straightforward as you’d imagine. This was followed by another WhatCulture Science piece, featuring some genuinely frightening substances: 10 Chemicals You Really Should Be Scared Of.

And that brings us to December, and this little summary. I hope you’ve enjoyed the blog this year – do tell your friends about it! Remember to follow @ChronicleFlask on Twitter and like fb.com/chronicleflask on Facebook – both get updated more or less daily.

Here’s wishing all my lovely readers a very Happy New Year – enjoy a drop of bubbly ethanol solution and be careful with the Armstrong’s mixture…. 

See you on the other side!

new-year-1898553_960_720

8 Things Everyone Gets Wrong About ‘Scary’ Chemicals

scaryChemicals. The word sounds a little bit scary, doesn’t it? For some it probably conjures up memories of school, and that time little Joey heated something up to “see what would happen” and you all had to evacuate the building. Which was actually good fun – what’s not to love about an unplanned fire drill during lesson time?

But for others the word has more worrying associations. What about all those lists of additives in foods, for starters? You know, the stuff that makes it all processed and bad for us. Don’t we need to get rid of all of that? And shouldn’t we be buying organic food, so we can avoid ….

….Read the rest of this article at WhatCulture Science.


This is my first article for WhatCulture Science – please do click the link and read the rest!


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A scary Halloween tale…

Food additives, E-numbers – they’re scary aren’t they? Everyone knows they’re horrible, toxic things that make kids jump around, refuse to go to bed, go purple in the face and generally drive their parents around the bend (do kids really need chemical help with any of those things?)

pumpkin eating

Be careful what you eat…

It’s Halloween, a day when children traditionally stuff their faces fully of sugary, brightly-coloured sweeties. But never mind those, let’s give some thought to the humble pumpkin. Yes the orange things that grow in the ground. Did you know they’re stuffed full of additives too? Even ‘organic’ ones? They are, really! Here’s an ingredients list…

Water, carbohydrate, protein, E300, E375, E101, pyridoxine, thiamine, E470a, pteroyl-L-glutamic acid, E306, E160a, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, purines, E621, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc.

Scared yet?

Ok ok, don’t panic. Put down the baseball bat. It’s all right really, allow me to translate…

E300 is ascorbic acid, otherwise known as vitamin C. E375 is niacin (vitamin B3). E101 is riboflavin (vitamin B2). Pyridoxine is vitamin B6. Thiamine is vitamin B1 (seeing a pattern here? Pumpkin is good for B vitamins). E470a represents potassium salts of fatty acids. Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid is another name for folic acid. E306 is tocopherol, or vitamin E. E160a is beta-carotene (vitamin A).

Palmitic acid is the most common fatty acid found in animals and plants, and linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids are essential fatty acids particularly found in pumpkin seeds (very tasty roasted). Purines are some of the building blocks of DNA (the word purine comes from ‘pure urine’ because they were first synthesised from uric acid, isolated from kidney stones – ewwww). E621 is the dreaded monosodium glutamate. A lot of people fear this one, but actually it’s just a sodium salt of glutamic acid, which is another key amino acid. Totally natural. In fact, it’s one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids. (I will confess I’m improvising a wee bit here, but there’s no doubt that there’s glutamic acid in pumpkin – very abundant amino acid see – and there’s also sodium, so chances are there’s some monosodium glutamate knocking around in there.)

Potassium, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, iron and zinc are all elements, and also important nutrients – you’ll find them all listed on the back of any good multivitamin and mineral supplement.

Food for thought? There’s a lot of nonsense spouted about additives and E numbers. For starters, that E? It means they’re regulated food additives that have been tested and approved for use with the European Union. They are, by definition, safe. Not only that, but quite a few of them are in your food to keep you safe by preventing harmful bacteria growing in it, for example. Lots and lots of them come from natural sources. Chemists like to extract and identify things, which is why lots of entirely natural substances have ended up with chemical names. An unfamiliar and complicated-sounding name doesn’t make something inherently dangerous.

On the other hand, there is something that’s been proven time and time again to cause numerous health issues from crashing energy levels to obesity, type two diabetes and dental problems. Yup. Sugar. E numbers have nothing on it.

I’m not suggesting anyone gives up sugar (where would be the fun in that, especially on Halloween?) but it’s always worth thinking about relative risk. If you’re going to accept a bit of sugar isn’t the end of the world, then give additives a break as well.

Right, I’m off to eat some Halloween biscuits – trick or treat!

Are artificial preservatives really that bad?

Are preservatives really such a bad thing?

But are preservatives really such a bad thing?

As something of a skeptic, I am fond of myth- and hoax-busting type things.  I find them reassuring.  If I had to accept that absolutely everyone swallowed stories about poisonous bottled water, free Disneyland tickets, and the Pope coming out as gay without a second thought, I really would lose all faith in humanity.  But occasionally, just occasionally, a bizarre story pops up that actually turns out to be true.

And so it was a few days ago, when the Hoax Slayer feed on Facebook threw up a story about the luminous, foil-packed beverage Capri-Sun.  It would appear that mould (or, indeed mold – never mind fungi growing in children’s drinks, the story generated far more upset over American versus British spelling) has actually been found growing in Capri-Sun containers, in some cases in some really rather spectacular shapes and sizes.  This was no hoax.  It wasn’t even, unlike the story of the giant snake hanging around a mechanical digger, a twisted misrepresentation of the facts.  No, mould really has been found growing in more than one Capri-Sun container.

In a statement, Kraft, who make Capri-Sun, said:

Among the many, many millions of pouches we sell each year, it does happen from time to time because the product is preservative free. A statement is included on all cartons telling consumers to discard any leaking or damaged packages. If mold does occur, we completely agree that it can be unsightly and gross, but it is not harmful and is more of a quality issue rather than a safety issue.

This got me thinking, and funnily enough my thoughts were less “never, ever buy Capri-Sun” but rather “why is ‘preservative free’ such a good thing”?

salt-sugar-fatHumans have been preserving food for a very long time.  In fact, arguably since we first learned that holding bits of dead mammoth over that new-fangled fiery stuff makes it taste nicer and a bit less chewy.  The earliest preservatives are, of course, those oh-so-healthy staples of salt, sugar and fat.  And they’re still in use today.

Salt, otherwise known as sodium chloride, found in rocks and seawater.  We all like our salty foods, but how often do you stop and wonder why that delicious slice of ham is traditionally so salty?  It’s not just for flavour.  Salt is an excellent preservative, and humans have been using it for that reason for at least eight thousand years.  It’s a drying agent, drawing moisture from cells by osmosis, and since bacteria and fungi need moisture to grow salting food keeps them at bay.  Adding salt to food allowed people to travel over long distances and reduced the problem of seasonal availability.  As such it was an important commodity, even being used as a form of currency.  These days of course it’s far less valuable, until Britain suffers a dusting of snow that is.

Salt may help to keep our food fresh, but it’s not great when it comes to keeping us healthy.  In recent years too much salt has been increasingly associated with certain health problems.  Salt appears to raise blood pressure, and raised blood pressure puts you at increased risk of heart disease and stroke.  There is some controversy over exactly how causal this link is, but most health professionals agree that we could do with eating a bit less NaCl.

Next on the list, sugar.  Again, it’s been used since ancient times.  Preserves aren’t called preserves for nothing.  Jam (for our American cousins, jelly) wasn’t invented purely because it was delicious on toast.  No, jam, marmalade and the like are a handy way of making the summer fruit glut last all through the year.  Sugar works in a similar, although sweeter, way to salt: drawing water from cells by osmosis and producing an environment that’s hostile to bacteria.  Of course, as we all know, too much sugar isn’t great for our waistlines and it’s really bad for our teeth.  And tooth decay is far more than a cosmetic problem: in extreme cases infection can spread from the tooth to the surrounding tissues and lead to potentially fatal (really) complications such as cavernous sinus thrombosis and Ludwig’s angina.

What about fat?  Traditionally used as a layer on top of foods such as shrimp, chicken liver and pâté, it produces an air- and water-tight seal that makes a very effective barrier to bacteria.  Very high-fat foods, such as butter and cream, aren’t bacteria-friendly because, again, they have a low water content and bacteria need water to grown and reproduce.  Such foods also have fewer sugars, in particular lactose, that provide bacteria with their lunch.  This is why the use-by date on the cream is longer than the one on the milk, and why you can safely store the butter out of the fridge (you can, honestly).  Funnily enough, fat is probably the most controversial ‘additive’ from a health point of view.  Increasingly various groups are questioning the conventional wisdom that a high intake of saturated fat leads to cardiovascular disease, and of course there are essential fatty acids that are, well, essential.  We definitely need fat, at least certain kinds of fat, in our diet.  But there’s no doubt it’s high in calories, and it’s clear that being overweight is bad your health, so moderation is key.

So, salt, sugar and fat are all natural preservatives which are all associated with genuine health concerns.  What about artificial preservatives?  Well there are quite a few, and it would take a while to list them all (I’m not going to).  Some of them are definitely controversial.  Nitrates and nitrites, for example, form nitrosamines when foods are cooked, and these have been linked to an increased cancer risk.  But on the other hand, nitrates and nitrites prevent the growth of botulinum toxin, and if you ingest that, we’re not talking about a small increased risk, we’re talking about dead.  Plus, unlike fat, sugar and salt, their addition to foods is strictly regulated, so you’re unlikely to consume dangerously high quantities unless you’re practically living off processed meat.  In which case… well we’re back to salt and saturated fat again.

Sulfites, such as potassium and sodium sulfite, are common food additives which are known to be problematic for certain individuals, particularly if they have asthma or aspirin sensitivity.  But then, some people are allergic to peanuts and they haven’t been banned, yet.  There’s no evidence that sulfites are dangerous to everyone.

Sodium benzoate is another preservative that’s been linked with health problems, in particular hyperactivity in children.  But, and it’s quite a big but, only in combination with certain artificial colours.  And the effects observed weren’t consistent.  The Food Standards Agency concluded that, if real, the observed increases in hyperactive behaviour were more likely to be linked to the colours rather than the preservative.  Professor Jim Stevenson, author of the report, commented that “parents should not think that simply taking these additives out of food will prevent hyperactive disorders”.

dscf28802And this brings us back to soft drinks, because sodium benzoate is, or at least was, a fairly common ingredient in flavoured beverages.  Although, not Capri-Sun, as we’ve already established.

But Capri-Sun does contain sugar.  Admittedly, it’s main purpose isn’t preservative – there’s not quite enough for that – but still it’s an ingredient, and a significant one.  A quick glance at the nutritional information reveals that Capri-Sun contains 10.5 g of sugar per 100 g.  That’s 21 g in one of the foil packs, or roughly 5 teaspoons.  Some of this comes from the fruit juices the drink is made of, but not all.  Sugar is clearly listed as an added ingredient.  NHS guidelines suggest we shouldn’t be eating more than about 50 g (for women) or 70 g (for men) of sugar a day, so that one, really quite small, packet of Capri-Sun contains about half of a woman’s recommended daily sugar intake.

Make no mistake, sugar is bad.  It’s really bad.  Quite apart from dental decay and obesity, excessive sugar exposure has been firmly linked to type 2 diabetes.  And, guess what, eating less sugar cuts the risk of developing this potentially life-threatening illness.  Want to look after your family’s health?  You could do a lot worse than cutting back on sugar.

Let’s briefly consider some other favourite sticky beverages.  The Coca Cola Company is in the process of phasing sodium benzoate out of its products — including Coke, Sprite, Fanta, and Oasis — as soon as a “satisfactory alternative” is developed, and a quick look at some cans in my fridge (oh the shame) suggests they’ve already done it, in this country anyway.  Sugar, not so much (diet alternatives aside, obviously).  Sprite contains 6.6 g of sugar per 100 g (less than Capri-Sun, hmmm) and Coke contains 10.6 g per 100 g.

Now, I find this very interesting.  We have a small risk from sodium benzoate, when it’s combined with other additives, maybe.  And suddenly food companies are desperate to get it out of their products, and to prominently label everything as “free from artificial preservatives”.  It’s a real sales point.  Sugar, on the other hand, is definitively bad.  No argument.  Over-consumption of sugar is definitely associated with a number of negative health outcomes.  But we don’t seem to see quite so much enthusiasm for lowering the sugar content of foods or drinks, unless they’re being marketed as diet options.

Why so keen to get rid of one but not the other?  Sugar is cheap and tasty, and consumers like sweetness.  Artificial preservatives, on the other hand, cost money, don’t add anything to the taste (until the product goes off, that is) and make products last longer.  Preservative-free products have shorter use-by dates, and so people throw more away with the result that… they end up buying more.

A cynical person might wonder who really benefits from these “free from artificial preservatives” policies…. especially when the result is freaky lumps of mould in your sugary orange drink.